The Case Against Sugar review Ô eBook or Kindle ePUB

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Nearly % of children are thought to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease And sugar is at the root of these and other critical society wide health related problems With his signature command of both science and straight talk Gary Taubes delves into Americans' history with sugar its uses as a preservative as an additive in cigarettes the. main take aways a calorie is not a calorie fats in food are not bad sugar causes diabetes gout cancer bad breath insomnia restless leg syndrome MRSA depression economic ineuality republicans nazis trump and alzheimer's the sugar industry uses tactics similar to climate change deniers it is almost impossible to not eat sugar there is as much sense in eating a moderate amount of sugar as there is in smoking a moderate amount of cigarettesit's not like any of these conclusions are hard to come bythe problem is that it takes so much effort not to consume sugar

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The Case Against SugarContemporary overuse of high fructose corn syrup He explains what research has shown about our addiction to sweets He clarifies the arguments against sugar corrects misconceptions about the relationship between sugar and weight loss and provides the perspective necessary to make informed decisions about sugar as individuals and as a socie. ‘Medicine is mostly taught untethered from its history’ asserts Gary Taubes at the beginning of this book ‘Students are taught what to believe but not always the evidence on which their beliefs are based’This book is a much needed history of sugar I can think of nowhere else where failure to look at the evidence on which medical beliefs are based has had and continues to have such tragic conseuencesThe leading authority who dominated the teaching about diabetes during the twentieth and into the twenty first century was a dedicated doctor called Elliott Joslin His textbook ‘The Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus was first published in 1916 Revered as a bible its most recent edition appeared in 2005 forty three years after his death Joslin argued that fats and not sugar were the cause of diabetes This belief was supported by Harold Himsworth a very influential diabetes researcher based in London who in 1931 proposed that a diet rich in carbohydrate should be recommended to diabetics Both Joslin and Himsworth pointed to Japan as a country where the diet was rich in carbohydrate and low in fat and where there was very little diabetes What both men ignored was that sugar consumption in Japan at that time was comparable to that in England and America in the nineteenth century when diabetes was very rare They both assumed that sugar and other carbohydrates were euivalent in their effects on the human bodySugar sucrose is formed in plants by the condensation of two simpler sugars – glucose and fructose Glucose the molecule into which starches are digested is used to provide energy Any surplus is converted in the liver and muscles to glycogen ‘animal starch’ for storage until needed Conversion of glucose to glycogen is under the control of the hormone insulin Fructose by contrast is converted by the liver into fat Its fat forming effects seem to be enhanced when glucose is presentJoslin’s and Himsworth’s misconception might have been challenged by the research on metabolism endocrinology genetics and nutrition which was taking place in Germany and Austria before the Second World War Post 1939 this very valuable work was lost to the scientific community Nutritionists in the English speaking world focussed on energy balance A calorie was a calorie no matter where it came from Putting on weight was simply a matter of consuming calories than could be expended Excess weight caused both diabetes and obesity Diet and exercise were the solutionsWhen the techniue of radioimmunoassay was developed in the 1960s it brought with it the possibility of measuring hormone levels and the problem of insulin resistance came to light Unexpectedly high insulin levels could accompany high levels of sugar in the blood Insulin was no longer effective in moving glucose out of the blood and into cells This pattern was found in people suffering from obesity and in those who developed diabetes later in life What caused insulin resistance was then a mystery It has since been linked to sugar consumptionBy the 1950s it was recognised that heart disease was associated with both diabetes and obesity Whether too much fat or too much sugar caused heart disease was still an open uestion and researchers were highly motivated to find an answer The hypothesis that fat was the murder weapon was supported by the very wealthy and powerful Sugar Association with its Food and Nutrition Advisory Committee The American Heart Association also came down on the side of fat It advocated low fat diets for every American while its researchers were admitting that the dietary fatheart disease hypothesis needed much investigation Those who favoured the sugar hypothesis like John Yudkin in England faced ridicule and the charge of being uacks In the 1960s Yudkin fed human subjects sugar rich diets and reported that this increased their cholesterol and triglyceride levels It seemed to ratchet up their insulin levels and even make their blood platelets stickyClinical trials were set up in the US and in Europe to test the fat but not the sugar hypothesis To date they have failed to show that high levels of dietary fat cause heart disease obesity or diabetes Nevertheless in 1986 the American government and health organisations committed themselves to getting Americans to eat a low fat diet Everyone else followed suit The epidemic of diseases included in metabolic syndrome has only worsenedGary Taubes cannot prove that sugar is the cause of Western chronic diseases but the evidence he gives is overwhelming I have concentrated on some of the scientific aspects but this book contains much It is also as riveting as a good novel Taubes’ clarity of vision is very rare and a book like this is worth its weight in gold

Gary Taubes ↠ 3 summary

The Case Against Sugar review Ô eBook or Kindle ePUB ô ✬ [PDF] ✓ The Case Against Sugar By Gary Taubes ✹ – From the best selling author of Why We Get Fat a groundbreaking eye opening expose that makes the convincing case that sugar is the tobacco of the new millennium backed by powerfulFrom the best selling author of Why We Get Fat a groundbreaking eye opening expose that makes the convincing case that sugar is The Case PDF or the tobacco of the new millennium backed by powerful lobbies entrenched in our lives and making us very sickAmong Americans diabetes is prevalent today than ever obesity is at epidemic proportions. This book delves into Western civilization's history with sugar and its increasing rate of consumption since introduction of refined sugar into the Western diet With this increased consumption also came the economic power of the sugar industry that throughout most of the twentieth century was the funder of nutritional research that tended to focus of causes for Western diseases in directions other that sugar itselfThe rate of occurrence of diabetes heart disease gout and a host of other chronic conditions pretty much parallels the rate of increase of sugar consumption Throughout the twentieth century researchers seemed to want to blame saturated fats and cholesterol but had difficultly establishing links through subseuent health studies Reluctance to distinguish between complex carbohydrates and simple sugar carbohydrate and refusing to accept the possibility of different metabolism routes for sucrose fructose and other sugars made nutritional researchers blind to the possible role of sugarIn the manner of a good prosecuting attorney Taubes in this book lays on layer after layer of additional evidence in making his case against sugar This data is gleaned from medical history and multiple population studies of the relationship between the consumption of sugar with diabetes and then with all the other medical problems associated with diabetes Today the American rate of diabetes is nearly one in ten adults and approximately one in ten children are estimated to have nonalcoholic fatty liver disease which is a precursor of diabetesI found particularly alarming the concept of perinatal metabolic programming aka metabolic imprinting as a hypothetical means by which succeeding generations may be likely to develop diabetes insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome than is true for today's populationThe conditions in the womb—in the intrauterine environment—influence the development of the fetus so that subtly different conditions will lead in effect to the birth of newborns who respond differently to the environment they face outside the womb In particular the nutrients that the developing child receives in the womb—including the supply of glucose—pass across the placenta in proportion to the nutrient concentration in the mother's circulation The higher the mother's blood sugar the greater the supply of glucose to the fetus The developing pancreas responds by overproducing insulin secreting cells The baby is not diabetic says Roy Metzger who studies diabetes and pregnancy at Northwestern University but the insulin producing cells in the pancreas are stimulated to function and grow in size and number by the environment they're in So they start over functioning That in turn leads to a baby laying down fat which is why the baby of diabetic mother is typified by being a fat babyI interpreted the above as probably leading to increased sensitivity to the detrimental effects of sugar However Taubes elsewhere says it may increase or decrease sensitivity he's not sure whichI thought once Taubes had established the link between sugar and diabetes that he would be finished But he proceeds to link heart disease to diabetes through the indirect link of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome that leads to hypertension He didn't stop there He then proceeded to name sugar as the culprit in ALL Western diseases if sugar causes insulin resistance and elevates triglycerides and makes us fat then it very likely causes hypertension too—if not directly then at least indirectly through its effect on insulin resistance and weight Sugar is the culpritSo here's the ifthen hypothesis If these Western diseases are associated with obesity diabetes insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome which many of them are then whatever causes insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome is likely to be the necessary dietary trigger for the diseases or at least a key player in the causal pathway Because there is significant reason to believe that sugars—sucrose and high fructose corn syrup in particular the nearly fifty fifty combinations of glucose and fructose— are the dietary trigger of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome it's uite likely they are a primary cause of all these Western diseases including cancer and Alzheimer's disease Without these sugars in the diet these chronic diseases would be relatively rare if not in some cases virtually nonexistentAt this point Taubes proceeds to address the major Western diseases one by one to discuss the likelihood that sugar is responsible or at least largely responsible He proceeds to go into a detailed discussion of the hypothetical biochemical mechanisms by which ingestion of sugar can be linked to gout hypertension cancer and Alzheimer's disease Taubes doesn't claim definitive proof according to the rules of science and indeed it may never be possible to establish absolute proof But Taubes has certainly laid out a string of circumstantial evidence and mechanisms by which simple sugars can lead to the Western diseases that I find compellingTaube concludes with a discussion of what is the safe amount of sugar to eat He says the answer is similar to the answer for tobacco There is no safe amount for everyone There are some population studies that have shown that when primitive cultures begin to eat the Western diet that problems begin to appear at about seventy pounds per capita per year of sugar consumption with a twenty year delay in the appearance of symptoms The FDA in 1986 said forty two pounds per capita per year was safe Current average per capita sugar consumption in USA is over 100 lbyear less losses from discarded food But that is a generalized amount for the total population and doesn't account for some individuals who may be maladapted to sugar Further future populations may be or less sensitive to sugar than in the past because of perinatal metabolic programmingHere's a link to an article about sugar addiction and withdrawal's a link to an NPR article titled What The Industry Knew About Sugar's Health Effects But Didn't Tell Us's a link to a NYT article about research on the negative health effects of sugar One study from Emory University found that regular consumption not only of drinks containing added sugars but also of naturally sweet fruit juice raised the risk of an early death by as much as 44 percent risk for developing heart disease and kidney stones rose in direct proportion to the amount of high fructose corn syrup they consumed