Download ´ The Pope Who Would Be King Ì PDF DOC TXT eBook or Kindle ePUB free

Download ñ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ¼ David I. Kertzer

Download ñ PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ¼ David I. Kertzer Hority he believed was divinely ordained But as the revolutionary spirit of swept through Europe the Pope found he could not have it both ways By the end of his rule the Papacy and Europe had completely transformed In The Pope Who Would Be King David Kertzer tells the story of the revolution that spelled the end of the papacy as an earthly rule and the birth of modern Europe. I have a friend who is militantly anti Catholic who once observed how odd he found it that every single Pope since Pius IX has either been canonized or is in the pipeline for it The only exceptions are the Benedicts one of whom isn't dead Benedict XV's lack of promotion is odd since he was arguably both holy and a good steward of the papal throneBut I digress It is certainly true that Popes have been less exciting in the post Pio Nono reigns To say nothing of less political which may be the direct result of the loss of the Papal States Kertzer's well written book focuses upon the beginning of the divestiture of the papal patrimony ie the removal of the Pope to Gaeta in the face of Roman uprisings during the troubles of 1848 An actual republic was declared and Pius IX invited the Catholic powers of Europe France Austria Spain and the Bourbon Kingdom of Naples to suppress it and restore him to his secular authority The republicans were perfectly happy to have the Pope reside in Rome and continue his role as spiritual leader of the Roman Church but Pius wasn't interested His early liberalism after his election in 1846 seems to have been a misguided attempt to curry favor with the citizens of the Papal States rather than any deep seated convictions Once it became apparent that the genie of democracy was out of the bottle the Pope fled the Eternal City The damndest people keep showing up in this story Alexis de Tocueville yes that guy actually winds up being the French Foreign Minister who sends troops against the Roman Republic Rome is bombarded and people die although the French wring their hands a bit over the prospect of damaging the center of Western civilization Pius sits it all out in Gaeta whining non stop about how unfair his people are being to him The net result is to turn a not very bright man into a hardened tyrant no other real word will do when he is restored The Pope has people guillotined In the 1850s Which is not something I knew before Kertzer bends over backwards to be personally kind about Pius' character flaws but a modern pontiff who has people beheaded should be disualified for sainthood Apparently not; he was declared Venerable in 1985 and Blessed in 2000 by St Pope John Paul II During the previous century three other attempts to advance his cause had failedThe book is a good read Kertzer writes in such a way that one can keep track of the characters and clearly understand what the major players considered to be at stake during Pius' early regnal years As for the emergence of Modern Europe subtitle it is less effective That probably had to do with the revolutions that swept the Austrian Empire and the emerging nationalisms in Italy Germany Hungary and the Russian Empire But Pius' rejection of the Modern certainly didn't help the cause of the ancien regimeRecommended

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Download ´ The Pope Who Would Be King Ì PDF, DOC, TXT, eBook or Kindle ePUB free ☆ [KINDLE] ✿ The Pope Who Would Be King By David I. Kertzer – Gwairsoft.co.uk The Pulitzer winning author of The Pope and Mussolini takes on a central untold story of the Papacy the revolution that The Pulitzer winning author Who Would Epub #223 of The Pope and Mussolini takes on a central untold story of the Papacy the revolution that stripped the Pope of political power and signaled the birth of modern EuropeThe longest reigning pope Pope Pius IX also oversaw one of the greatest periods of tumult and transition in Church history The Pope PDF or When Pius IX was elect. The Pope who would be King is tremendously entertaining and highly informative for a reader possessing a modest knowledge of the history of Italian Unification The subject is the Roman Republic which was proclaimed on February 9 1849 and suppressed by the French Army on July 2 1849 The goal of the author is to show how the experience turned the papacy into the vehement foe of democracy freedom of speech and freedom of the press until the 1960s If Kertzer had not chosen to link the declaration of Papal Infallibility made 20 years later to the events described in this book I would have given it five starsThe story of the Roman Republic is normally viewed as an event among many in the long history of the struggle for Italian Independence aka the Risorgimento aka Italian Unification Hence it is usually told from the perspective of the winners who fought to unify the Italian Peninsula into a single nation and expel its Austrian occupiers Kertzer's book has the great merit of presenting the story from the point of view of the upper clergy of the Roman Catholic church who wanted to maintain the papal theocracy that directly ruled most the of territory in Italy between the Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian ruled territories in Northern ItalyKertzer provides a superb portrait of Pius IX and the cardinals in his entourage during the time periond in which he conceded a constitution to his Papal states fled Rome and returned after the military defeat of the Roman Republic Kertzer is similarly outstanding in describing the personalities and players involved in the democratic assembly created by Pius IX and which would subseuently turn him into a virtual prisoner before his flight from the eternal city Kertzer's descriptions of Mazzini the leader of the Triumvirate that governed the Roman Republic is particularly goodFrom my point of view the best part of the book was the way in which Kertzer described the manoeuvrings inside the French camp Initially France sent a military force to Rome with three goals 1 bring the Pope back to Rome; 2 ensure the survival of the constitutional government; and 3 reduce the influence of Austria in the Italian peninsula The diplomats attached a great deal of importance to preserving a liberal government in the Pope's former territories The military were sympathetic to the Pope but most of all wanted a fast decisive military action against the Roman Republic which they felt would be the best way to minimize the loss of life After a period of reflection the French President Louis Napoléon Bonaparte later Napoléon III decided that what he wanted above all to pose as the defender of the Catholic faith Liberalism in Rome would have to wait for another day The French army attacked and the thoroughly repressive medieval theocracy regime was reinstalled in Rome and throughout the Papal states with no liberal elements of any sortLouis Napoléon was not pleased by the refusal of Pius IX to make any concessions Lliberalism As a result he intervened ten years later in the Second Italian War of Independence to ensure that all of the Papal states with the exception of the Vatican enclave Rome passed into the hands of the Kingdom of Italy which had a liberal constitution The conclusion that Pius IX drew from this was not that it was better to co operate with Liberalism but to fight it with all his forces He convoked the First Vatican Council of 1869 1870 which declared the Pope to be infallible in uestions of doctrine and which condemned democracy religious freedom freedom of speech freedom of the press and the separation of church and stateVatican I wound up the same year in which the French finally pulled their army out of Rome thus allowing the incorporation of the Holy City into the Kingdom of Italy Many people have noted that the two events were chronologically linked However there is no legitimate reason to link the doctrine of papal infallibility to Italian unification The link between the Roman Catholic Church dislike of Liberalism and the movement for Italian Unification could not be clearly Those fighting for unification did so with the express goal of imposing a liberal constitution on all of Italy and of disposing the Vatican of its possessions The doctrine of papal infallibility had theological roots After struggling with the Reformation for 300 years the Catholic theologians had come to realize by the end of the 19th Century that some of their doctrines were difficult to justify on purely theological grounds Conseuently Papa Infallibility was needed as a last resort in certain instances The Virgin Mary and her constant appearances posed the biggest problem Papal Infallibility has in fact only be used once since it was declared This was in 1950 to define the Assumption of the Virgin Mary It has certainly never been used to attack Liberalism

David I. Kertzer ¼ 2 Summary

The Pope Who Would Be KingEd the pope was still a king as well as a spiritual leader welcomed by the citizens of the Papal States who hoped he might bring in modern reforms such as a constitutional government after the repressive rule of Pope Gregory XVI In the first year of his rule Pius IX Pope Who Would PDF #9734 tried to please his subjects with incremental changes while holding onto absolute aut. The tumultuous life of Pope Pius IX Here is an opportunity to study the life of Pope Pius IX and take a journey through the history of Roman Catholic Church that paved the way for modern Europe Following the death of Pope Gregory XVI 1831–46 the political climate within Italy was turning its tide against Catholic Church’s autocracy The church was steeped in a factional division between conservatives and liberals The conservatives favored the hardline stances and papal absolutism of the previous pontificate while liberals supported reforms In this book author David Kertzer chronicles the tumultuous life of Pope Pius IX and the fate of Catholic Church in progressive Europe Majority of the inhabitants of Papal states during this time did not like the church’s abuses Majority of them wanted to live free from its clutches Jews found themselves in the confines of poverty abuse and antisemitism in the slums of Rome Life for them was beyond unbearable Worst of all was that they lived in fear that their children may be taken from them forcibly baptized under Roman Laws and they would be raised as a Catholics During earlier years the election of Pope Pius IX created much enthusiasm in Europe But soon it faded as French revolution dominated the continent’s political arena The separation of church and state was becoming increasingly popular Conseuently Pope’s influence on people was decreasing But Pope Pius did not shirk he wanted control within Europe and at the same time he expected Roman Catholics to have freedom in Russia and the Ottoman Empire He also fought against anti Catholic sentiments in Italy and Germany When Pope’s life was threatened and became dangerous; he was guarded in seclusion by French forces But after the French defeat in the Franco Prussian War 1870–1871 the Papal States lost its protector in Emperor Napoleon III and came under control Italian rulers But until this time Pope Pius IX was a Sovereign Ruler of the Papal States and expected to be treated as a King During his reign the Pontiff made full use of his spiritual arsenal and warned that Catholics must not believe in freedom of religion or freedom of speech or freedom press He summoned the world’s bishops and cardinals and addressing the conference he condemned the godless forces that emerged from French revolution He proclaimed that he alone would find spiritual solutions for people Many modern day Christian conservatives blame the hippie culture and X generation for turning away from God Pope Pius IX felt the same way during his leadership But in its absolutism the separation of church and state is less meaningful as religions like Islam is making inroads and introducing its political ideology through teachings of its books and Sharia Laws The state of affairs in the Middle East and other Islamic countries demonstrate how clergy have cleverly taken control of its masses by intimidating their governments